Dr. Vicente B. Malano
Acting Administrator, PAGASA
Agham Road, Diliman
Quezon City, Philippines 1100
ATTENTION: Engr. Dario L. dela Cruz
Provided that the sky is clear, visitors can expect to have a glimpse of the famous bright stars like Vega and Sirius during the stargazing session. Planets such as Jupiter, Venus, Saturn, Mercury and Mars, including their satellites and the Moon can also be observed.
For residents of the cities of Davao, Cagayan de Oro, Cebu and Legazpi, stargazing and telescoping sessions can also be conducted at the PAGASA regional centers located in their area. One (1) 25-cm telescope in each of the above-mentioned sites are available for use. These telescopes were procured in May 1998 through the Grant-in-aid (GIA) project of the Department of Science and Technology (DOST), which is entitled "Promotion of Astronomy".
Stargazing during the month will give fine display of celestial bodies such as stars and constellations after sunset and before sunrise. The famous Summer Triangle of the stars Vega, Deneb and Altair of the constellations Lyra, Aquila and Cygnus respectively, is well placed above the eastern horizon, as shown in Figures 1 & 1a.
This month, the rich band of constellations and stars along the Milky Way from the constellations Cygnus, the Swan, in the north to Sagittarius and Scorpius in the south, begin to give way to fainter constellations, many of them with watery associations such as the constellations of Capricornus, the Sea Goat; Aquarius, the Water Bearer and Pisces, the Fish. The famous asterism Teapot in the sky of the constellation Sagittarius can be observed at about 40 to 45 degrees above the south southeastern horizon as also shown in the said Figures.
(click to view image)
(click to view image)
The equinoxes are the only times when the solar terminator (the "edge" between night and day) is perpendicular to the equator. On an equinox, day and night are of approximately equal duration all over the planet. They are not exactly equal, however, due to the angular size of the sun and atmospheric refraction.
Autumnal equinox will occur on September 23 at 4:02 a.m. Hence, thereafter, Philippine nights will be longer as the Sun moves below the celestial equator towards the southern hemisphere.
Figures 2 and 2a represent the position of the Earth and Sun during Solstices and Equinoxes.
(click to view image)
(click to view image)
On September 1, at 5:00 A.M., planet Venus will be observed at about 21 degrees above the east northeastern horizon. It will lie among the background stars of the constellation Cancer, the Crab and will be shining brilliantly at magnitude -3.96. It will remain visible in the early morning sky throughout the month.
At 7:00 P.M., Jupiter and Saturn will be seen at about 20 and 53 degrees above the west southwestern horizon and lie among the background stars of the constellation Virgo, the Virgin and Ophiuchus, the Serpent Holder and will be shining at magnitude -1.74 and +0.42, respectively. These giant planets in the solar system become a good target for astrophotography that will reveal atmospheric features and their satellites using a DSLR camera mounted on a modest- sized telescope under a clear sky condition.
At 10:00 P.M., Neptune and Uranus will be observed at about 52 and 18 degrees above the east southeastern horizon, with magnitudes of +7.82 and 5.73, respectively. Neptune will lie among the background stars of the constellation Aquarius, the Water-Bearer, while Uranus lurks among the background stars of the constellation Pisces, the Fish. Observing Neptune and Uranus will require a binocular or a telescope and a starmap under dark and clear sky condition.
On September 17 at 5:20 A.M., an attractive arrangement of celestial bodies as the Waning Crescent Moon along with the three (3) planets, Venus, Mars and Mercury, line-up on the east northeastern horizon. The Moon will be found at about 34 degrees and Venus at 22 degrees above the horizon. Mercury and Mars are on the same line of sight with a separation of only 5 minutes of an arc and will be observed at about 10 degrees above the east northeastern horizon.
Figure 3 shows how to compare apparent magnitudes of celestial bodies such as planets and stars.
(click to view image)
|5||Mercury stationary||12:00 AM|
|5||Jupiter 3° N of Spica||7:00 PM|
|12||Mercury greatest elongation W (18°)||6:00 PM|
|12||Aldebaran 0.4° S of Moon||9:00 PM|
|14|| Moon at perigee
(nearest distance to Earth = 369,887.594 km)
|17||Mercury 0.06° N of Mars||2:00 AM|
|19||Mars 0.1° S of Moon (occn.)||4:00 AM|
|23||AUTUMNAL EQUINOX||4:02 AM|
|27|| Moon at apogee
(farthest distance from Earth = 404,275.862 km)
|27||Vesta in conjunction with Sun||10:00 PM|
CYNTHIA P. CELEBRE, Ph. D.
25 August 2017
For more information, call:
ENGR. DARIO L. DELA CRUZ
Chief, Space Sciences and Astronomy Section (SSAS), (RDTD)
Tel/Fax Nos. 434-27-15
Autumnal equinox will occur on September 23 at 4:02 a.m...
The Philippine Atmospheric, Geophysical and Astronomical Services Administration (PAGASA) is mandated by law, as the government agency tasked to keep and disseminate the Philippine Standard Time (PhST).
The Philippine Atmospheric, Geophysical and Astronomical Services Administration (PAGASA) is mandated by law, as the government agency which is tasked to keep and disseminate the Philippine Standard Time (PhST). Section 6 of Batas Pambansa Blg. 8, defining the metric system in the country, states that: "PAGASA shall be responsible in the establishment, maintenance and operation of the National Standard for the second of time".
Another law is Presidential Decree 1149, assigning PAGASA as the official agency that will handle the dissemination of the Philippine Standard Time (PST). Recently, the Philippine Standard Time Act was created. Later, its Implementing Rules and Regulations was also created.
Philippine Standard Time widget
Steps in Time Synchronization Using PAGASA NTP Server
Implementing Rules and Regulations of Republic Act No.10535
Disclaimer: Internet is one of the main modes by which PAGASA disseminates the Philippine Standard Time (PhST). There may be discrepancies with the PhST displayed here as compared to the PAGASA clock; the major causes being the internet transmission delay and the computer workload of the computer you are using. For a more precise clock synchronization, please call (+632) 9291237.
The Philippine Standard Time (PhST)
1. What is Republic Act No. 10535?
It is "The Philippine Standard Time (PhST) Act of 2013". This law sets the PhST in all official sources throughout the country, provide funds for the installation, and maintenance of synchronized time devices to be displayed in key public places, and to declare the first week of every year as National Time Consciousness Week (NSTW)
The Philippine Standard Time has the acronym PhST to distinguish it from the Pacific Standard Time (PST).
2. When was it passed into law and who signed it?
It was passed into law last May 15, 2013 and signed by President Benigno S. Aquino III.
3. What does it aim to promote?
The spirit behind the Philippine Standard Time touches on both technical and cultural aspects. The technical aspects aims to sync all time devices in the country so that its 7, 107 islands will have common time. Meanwhile, the cultural aspect aims to modify the so-called "Filipino time" (later than the scheduled time) attitude and develop the habit of being punctual as a show of respect to other people and to the value of time.
4. Where can the general public get the PhST?
The PhST is generally sourced from DOST-Philippine Atmospheric, Geophysical and Astronomical Services Administration (PAGASA), the official time keeper of the country. Specifically, the PhST can be accessed from the PAGASA Astronomical Observatory, PAGASA Forecasting Center or the PAGASA ICT group;
Other institutions that can provide the PhST are the following:
- DOST agencies, and regional and provincial offices, including their wbsites;
- All PAGASA Regional and Field Stations;
- Internet, use of Network Time Protocol (NTP) Server System located in PAGASA website;
- Any of the National and Local government offices;
- Government and private television stations, and government and private radio stations;
- Other reliable means that provide accurate PhST.
5. Who are required to display and comply with the PhST?
The following should display the PhST:
- National government agencies including State Universities and Colleges (SUCs) and Government Owned and Controlled Corporations (GOCCs);
- Local Government Units;
- Government television and rdio stations;
- Private television and radio stations;
- Private corporations/ agencies;
- Peoples's organizations, non-government organizations and civil society groups.
- Airports, seaports, expressways; and government electronic boards and similar establishments.
At least once a month, all of these offices, through their information and communication technology units or the equivalent, shall coordinate with PAGASA's Time Service Unit to synchronize their official timepieaces and devices.
6. Who is tasked to monitor, maintain and disseminate the PhST?
PAGASA's Time Service Unit, in coordination with the Department of Science and Technology (DOST).
7. What are the time devicces required to display PhST in acordance with the official time being provided by the PAGASA using its Network Time Protocol (NTP)?
Official time devices, including but limited to:
- bundy clocks
- displayed clocks
- quartz clocks
Procurement of these time devices is supervised by the DOST, and the required specifications are issued PAGASA.
8. Where should the PhST displayed?
It should be prominently displayed in areas readily accesible to the general public.
9. Do all time devices have to be exactly in sync with the PhST?
Time deviation of plus (+) or minus (-) five (5) seconds with the PhST is acceptable.
10.Private television and radio stations are required to display and broadcast the PhST. What if they fail to calibrate and sychronize their time devices?
Broadcast stations that fail to comply with the requirements of PhST will have the following penalty:
*First Offense - Fine of not less than thirty thousand (Php 30, 000.00) pesos but not more that fifty thousand (Php 50, 000.00) pesos.
*Second Offense - Revocation and cancellation of franchise to operate
The collected penalty will be deposited in the general fund of the National Treasury.
11.What if the government employee or officer responsible for the implementation of the PhST fails to calibrate and synchronize the devices with PhST?
The employee or officer shall be administratively liable without prejudice to any civil or criminal liability that maybe appropriately imposed.
12.How will the PhST be promoted to Filipinos?
To promote awareness on the Philippine Standard Time, the government institutionalized the "National Time Consciouseness Week" to be celebrated yearly every first week of January.
PAGASA and the Science and Technology Information Institute (STII) of the DOST, in collaboration with government agencies, shall organize activities for the observance of the National Time Consciouseness Week (NSTW). Government agencies through the CSC shall be encouraged to issue the necessary guidelines to all government offices to follow the PhST.
In the celebration week, the pubic is likewise required to participate and cooperate in the activities, and encouraged to practice and promote a culture of punctuality and wise time management.
For more details about synchronizing clocks with the PhST, please call the PAGASA Time Service Unit at (+632) 9291237