Fredolina D. Baldonado
The approach to the determination of radar reflectivity - rainfall intensity (Z-R) relationship is discussed. Calculations of the simultaneous reflectivity factors and rain rates in a volume of air are performed based on the solution to the radar equations by infusion of the different radar parameters and the measurement of return power of the electromagnetic wave. Linear regressions are applied to the transformed data sets and constants and coefficients in the relations that take the form Z=ARb are determined. A set of empirical Z-R relations for different locations in a river basin as well as for particular storms are obtained. The experimental average relation, Z = 66.8R2.61 is likewise determined.
The relationships show differences in excess of 50% in rainfall rate at the same reflectivity. These differences may be associated with differences in synoptic conditions affecting rain types, geographic location and to variations in precipitation with height.
Juan D. Cordeta
This study was primarily conducted to determine the status of the integrated lessons on natural hazards in the immediate grades science curriculum in the Division of Quezon City in terms of the Objectives, Curriculum Content, Time Allotment, and Teaching Methods Devices. Specifically, it sought to answer the following problems: (1) What is the profile of the Teachers of Science in the Public Elementary School as to? (1.1) Sex, (1.2) Age, (1.3) Educational attainment (1.4) Teaching experience and (1.5) Training/seminar workshop on natural hazards. (2) What is the status of the integrated materials on natural hazards in science curriculum as perceived by the teacher-respondents in the intermediate grades in terms of: Objectives, curriculum content, time allotment, teaching methods/devices? (3) Are there significance differences between the perceptions of Grades V and VI teacher-respondents on the lessons integrating natural hazards in the intermediate grades science curriculum when grouped according to their professional variables and their perceptions in general on the Objectives, Content, Time allotment, and Teaching Methods/Devices? Methodology: The descriptive method of research was used to achieve the objectives of this study which was to determine the status of the integrated materials on natural hazards in the intermediate grades science curriculum in terms of objectives, content, time allotment and teaching methods/devices. The respondents of the study were 165 teachers of science from the Division of Quezon City for the School Year 1995-1996. The statistical tools utilized were frequency, simple percentage, weighted means and simple ranking. To test the hypotheses, the T-test of mean difference was utilized. The questionnaire was the main instrument used in gathering the data needed in the study. Interviews were also resorted to in case responses were not conclusive or if question was not fully answered.
Salvador G. Quirimit
It is becoming clear day by day that humankind is causing major changes in the compositions of earth's environment on local, regional and global scales. These changes are caused by fossil fuel combustion, land used changes, biomas burning, deforestation, agricultural practices and industrial processes. scientists do not yet have a good understanding of the Earth system and its processes. Out of many uncertainties in the system one important uncertainty is the degree of nonlinearity of many Earth system processes. Therefore, to study and monitor the climatic changes in detail observations of various processes should be undertaken starting from short time scale of monthly variations to decade variations. In the present study, we have studied the monthly variation of sea surface temperature, water vapour and wind speed distribution over oceans. The SST images describe the movement of ocean currents, thermal equator etc. the water vapour images follow the sea surface temperature distribution to good extent. The wind speed pattern over the globe provides very good information about the monthly variations around the latitudes. The discontinuities in the global pattern of the above parameters can be identified from the images. Therefore, year to year variations can be monitored using the data from the satellites to update and generate new global environmental maps. In this study, the relationships between SST and WV are investigated in two climatic regions. Ocean wise analysis indicates that the SST and WV correlation are found to be better in Indian and Pacific ocean in comparison to Atlantic ocean region. However, this study should be extended to the other years to draw any valid conclusion. However, monthly relationships derived from the study will be useful to predict WV concentration from SST images. The GIS package used in this study is IDRISI for Windows. It is felt that the image analysis package is having only limited statistical procedures. Therefore, it is suggested here to expand the statistical package to accommodate at least the non-linear equations and curve fitting techniques, etc.